Teaching and Learning with Technology

Computing With Accents and Foreign Scripts

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Albanian (Shqip) is an Indo-European language spoken in Albania (north of Greece). It forms its own branch in Indo-European, but is distantly related to English, Greek, Russian, and Latin.

  1. Windows Alt Codes for ç, ë
  2. Macintosh Accent Codes for ç,ë
  3. HTML Encodings
    1. Language Codes: sq
  4. Linux Links

Windows Alt Codes

In Windows, combinations of the ALT key plus a numeric code can be used to type a non-English character (accented letter or punctuation symbol) in any Windows application. More detailed instructions about typing accents with ALT keys are available.  Additional options for entering accents in Windows are also listed in the Accents section of this Web site.

ALT codes for Albanian Ç, Ë
Sym ALT Code
Ç,ç ALT+0199 (caps)
ALT+0231 (lower)
Ë,ë ALT+0203 (caps)
ALT+0235 (lower)

Windows Albanian Keyboard

If you wish to simulate a non U.S. keyboard, follow the instructions for Activating Keyboard Locales to activate and switch Microsoft keyboards.

International Keyboard

You can also activate and use the U.S. International Keyboard for these codes.

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Macintosh Accent Codes

On the Macintosh platform, you can use the following Option key combinations.

Mac Option codes for Albanian Ç, Ë
Sym Option Code
Ç,ç Shift+Option+C (caps)
Option+C (lower)
Ë,ë Option+U,Shift+E (caps)
Option+U,E (lower)

Example 1: To input the lower case ë, hold down the Option key, then the U key. Release both keys then type lowercase E.
Example 2: To input the capital Ë, hold down the Option key, then the U key. Release both keys then type capital E.


HTML Accent Codes

Albanian Encoding and Language Tags

These are the codes which allow browsers and screen readers to process data as the appropriate language. All letters in codes are lower case.

See Using Encoding and Language Codes for more information on the meaning and implementation of these codes.

HTML Entity Codes Codes

Use these codes to input accented letters in HTML. For instance, if you want to type fashën you would type fashën

HTML Entity codes for Albanian Ç, Ë
Sym Option Code
Ç,ç ç  (caps)
Ç (lower)
Ë,ë ë (caps)
Ë (lower)

European Quote Marks

Many modern texts use American style quotes, but if you wish to include European style quote marks, here are the codes. Note that these codes may not work in older browsers.

Entity Codes for Quotation Marks
Sym HTMl Entity Code
« « (left angle)
» » (right angle)
‹ (left single angle)
› (right single angle)
„(bottom quote)
‚(single bottom quote)
“(left curly quote)
‘(left single curly quote)
”(right curly quote)
’(right single curly quote)
– (en dash)
— (em dash)

Using Encoding and Language Codes

Computers process text by assuming a certain encoding or a system of matching electronic data with visual text characters. Whenever you develop a Web site you need to make sure the proper encoding is specified in the header tags; otherwise the browser may default to U.S. settings and not display the text properly.

To declare an encoding, insert or inspect the following meta-tag at the top of your HTML file, then replace "???" with one of the encoding codes listed above. If you are not sure, use utf-8 as the encoding.

Generic Encoding Template

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=??? ">

Declare Unicode

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8 ">


The final close slash must be included after the final quote mark in the encoding header tag if you are using XHTML

Declare Unicode in XHTML

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />

No Encoding Declared

If no encoding is declared, then the browser uses the default setting, which in the U.S. is typically Latin-1. Some display errors may occur.

Language Tags

Language tags are also suggested so that search engines and screen readers parse the language of a page. These are metadata tags which indicate the language of a page, not devices to trigger translation. Visit the Language Tag page to view information on where to insert it.

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Last Modified: Tuesday, 04-Jun-2013 12:39:37 EDT