Teaching and Learning with Technology

Computing With Accents and Foreign Scripts

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See also: Other Celtic Languages | Other Minority Languages of France

Almost all applications support Breton accents. Guidelines for typing and using accents are given below.  lf you need to refer to additional characters, look under the Accents tab.

This Page

  1. About Breton
  2. Accent Codes
    1. Windows Alt Codes
    2. Windows International Keyboard
    3. Macintosh Accent Codes
  3. Activate International Keyboard (New Pag
  4. HTML Accent Codes
    1. Language Code: br (Modern Breton), xbm (Middle Breton) obt (Old Bretton)
  5. Linux Links

About Breton

Breton is a Celtic language spoken in the Brittany region on the west coast of France. It is closely related to Welsh and Cornish and more distantly related to Irish and Gaelic. Breton does not have as many accented charcters as French.

Breton Links

Windows Alt Codes

In Windows, combinations of the ALT key plus a numeric code can be used to type a non-English character (accented letter or punctuation symbol) in any Windows application. More detailed instructions about typing accents with ALT keys are available.  Additional options for entering accents in Windows are also listed in the Accents section of this Web site.

Accented Vowels
Vwl Vowels
Ê ALT+0202 (Cap E circ)
ê ALT+0234 (Lower E circ)
Ù ALT+0217 (Cap U grave)
ù ALT+0249 (Lower U grave)
Ü ALT+0220 (Cap U umlaut)
ü ALT+0252 (Lower U umlaut)
Sym Consonants/Punctuation
Ñ ALT+0209 (Cap N tilde)
ñ ALT+0241 (Lower N tilde)
« ALT+0171 (Left Angle Quote)
» ALT+0187 (Right Angle Quote)
ALT+0128 (Euro currency)

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Windows International Keyboard Codes

In order to use these codes you must activate the international keyboard. Instructions are listed in the Keyboards section of this Web site.

Accented Vowels

This list is organized by Accent type. The sample shows a letter with that accent, and the Notes present any special comments about using that accent.

For the Template, the symbol "V" means type any vowel.

Windows International Keyboard Vowel Codes
Acute é É ', V ' = apostrophe key
Circumflex ê Ê SHIFT+^, V  
Grave ù Ù `, V ` = left single quote
Umlaut ü Ü ", V " = quote key

Example 1: To type lower case ù - Type the grave key (`), then U.  For capital Ù, type the grave, then capital U.

Consonants and Puncutation

For these codes, you must make sure you use the Alt key on the right side of the keyboard.
Note: that there is no shortcut for the joined O-E.

Breton Consonant/Punctuation Codes
Sym Consonants/Punctuation
Ñ, ñ Type SHIFT+~, then either lowercase n or capital N
« RightAlt+[
» RightAlt+]

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Macintosh Accent Codes

Accented Vowels

For the Template, the symbol "V" means any vowel. The format is to hold the first two keys down simultaneously, release, then type the vowel you wish to be accented.
Note: You should use the Breton Keyboard if you need to type accents on the letter y.

Mac Option Codes for Vowels
Acute á Á Option+E, V
Circumflex ê Ê Option+I, V
Grave ù Ù Option+`, V
Umlaut ü Ü Option+U, V
N tilde ñ, Ñ Option+N, N

Example 1: To input the lower case ñ, hold down the Option key, then the N key. Release both keys then type lowercase n.
Example 2: To input the capital Ñ, hold down the Option key, then the N key. Release all three keys then type capital N.

Other Characters

Mac Consonants/Punctuation
Sym Consonants/Punctuation
ñ Option+N
Ç Shift+Option+C
« Option+\
» Shift+Option+\
(not on older fonts)

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HTML Accent Codes

Breton Encoding and Language Tags

These are the codes which allow browsers and screen readers to process data as the appropriate language. All letters in codes are lower case.

See Using Encoding and Language Codes for more information on the meaning and implementation of these codes.

HTML Entity Codes

Use these codes to input accented letters in HTML. For instance, if you want to type île you would type île.

The numbers in parentheses are the numeric codes assigned in Unicode encoding. For instance, because î is number 238, île can also be used to input île. These numbers are also used with the Windows Alt codes listed above.

Accented Vowels
Vwl Entity Code
Ê Ê (202)
ê ê (234)
Ù Ù (217)
ù ù (250)
Ü Ü (220)
ü ü (252)
Sym Entity Code
Ñ Ñ (209)
ñ ñ (241)
« « (171)
» » (187)

Note: Older browsers may also not suport single angle codes (‹ / › for and ).

Using Encoding and Language Codes

Computers process text by assuming a certain encoding or a system of matching electronic data with visual text characters. Whenever you develop a Web site you need to make sure the proper encoding is specified in the header tags; otherwise the browser may default to U.S. settings and not display the text properly.

To declare an encoding, insert or inspect the following meta-tag at the top of your HTML file, then replace "???" with one of the encoding codes listed above.

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=??? ">

Language tags are also suggested so that search engines and screen readers parse the language of a page. These are meta data tags which indicate the page of a language, not devices to trigger translation. Visit the Language Tag page to view information on where to insert it.




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Last Modified: Tuesday, 04-Jun-2013 12:39:39 EDT