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Computing With Accents and Foreign Scripts

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Dutch, Flemish, Afrikaans & Frisian

Thanks to Ralf Cornelissen and Lex Bennick for technical advice.

See also: Germanic Languages

Page Content

  1. About the Languages
  2. Accent Codes
    1. Windows Alt Codes
    2. Windows International Keyboard
    3. Macintosh Accent Codes
  3. Dutch or International Keyboards (New Page)
  4. HTML Accent Codes
    1. Language Codes: nl (Dutch/Flemish), af (Afrikaans), fy (Western Frisian), frs (Eastern/Saterland Frisian), frr (Northern Frisian), dum (Middle Dutch), odt (Old Dutch), ofs (Old Frisian)
  5. Linux Links

About the Languages

Dutch/Flemish/Afrikaans

Dutch, Flemish and Afrikaans are three closely related forms descended from the Germanic language Middle Dutch, first spoken in the Western coasts of Europe. In modern terms:

Note also that Dutch has recently undergone a spelling reform which has reduced the number of accents used to primarily the acute and umlaut (dieresis), but some older or French borrowed words may use the grave and circumflex accents.

Frisian

The term "Frisian" generally refers to Western Frisian spoken in the Netherlands, but closely related Frisian languages are also found in Germany. All are descended from Old Frisian which was a sister language to Anglo-Saxon. Hence, Frisian is considered the closest relative to English spoken in Europe.

Windows ALT Codes

In Windows, combinations of the ALT key plus a numeric code from the number keypad can be used to type a non-English character in any Windows application.

See the detailed instructions on the ALT Code How To for complete information on implementing the code. Additional options for entering accents in Windows are also listed in the Accents section of this Web site.

Alt Codes for typing Dutch accents:
Accent A E I O U Y
Acute
(Cap)
Á
0193
É
0201
Í
0205
Ó
0211
Ú
0218
Ý
0221
Acute (Lower) á
0225
é
0233
í
0237
ó
0243
ú
0250
ý
0253
Umlaut
(Cap)
Ä
0196
Ë
0203
Ï
0207
Ö
0214
Ü
0220
Ÿ
0159
Umlaut (Lower) ä
0228
ë
0235
ï
0239
ö
0246
ü
0252
ÿ
0255
Grave
(Cap)
À
0192
È
0200
Ì
0204
Ò
0210
Ù
0217
--
Grave (Lower) à
0224
è
0232
ì
0236
ò
0242
ù
0249
--
Circumflex
(Cap)
Â
0194
Ê
0202
Î
0206
Ô
0212
Û
0219
--
Circumflex (Lower) â
0226
ê
0234
î
0238
ô
0244
û
0251
--

Dutch Punctuation

Punctuation Symbols
Sym Punctuation
« ALT+0171 (Left Angle Quote)
» ALT+0187 (Right Angle Quote)
ALT+0128
ƒ ALT+0131 (Dutch florin sign)

Windows International Keyboard Codes

In order to use these codes you must activate the U.S. international keyboard. Once the U.S. International keyboard has been activated, you can use the codes below.

Accented Vowels

This list is organized by Accent type. The sample shows a letter with that accent, and the Notes present any special comments about using that accent.

For the Template, the symbol "V" means any vowel.

International Keyboard Codes
ACCENT SAMPLE TEMPLATE NOTES
Circumflex ô Ô Shift+^, V  
Acute ó Ó

', V ' = apostrophe key
Umlaut ö Ö ", V "= quote key
Grave ò Ò `, V  
Euro

Control+RightAlt+5  

Example 1: To type the letter ó - Type the apostrophe key ('), then O.  For Ó, type the apostrophe, then capital O.

Windows Dutch Keyboard

If you wish to simulate a non U.S. keyboard, follow the instructions for Activating Keyboard Locales to activate and switch Microsoft keyboards.

Macintosh Accent Codes

Accented Vowels and Punctuation

In order to use the full set of codes, particularly accented y, switch to or the US/ABC Extended keyboard.

Macintosh Accent Codes
ACCENT SAMPLE TEMPLATE
Acute

ó Ó

Option+E, V
Umlaut

ö Ö

Option+U, V
Circumflex

ô Ô

Option+I, V
Grave

ò Ò

Option+`, V
Double Angle Braket

«,»

Option+|
Shift+Option+|
Euro

Shift+Option+2
Dutch Florin Sign

ƒ

Option+F

Example 1: To input the letter ó, hold down the Option key, then the E key. Release both keys then type lowercase o.
Example 2: To input the letter Ó, hold down the Option key, then the E key. Release all three keys then type capital O.

Accented Y in OS X

For accented y, you must activate the US/ABC Extended keyboard. Once the extended keyboard has been activated, you can use the codes below.

Example: For Ý, type Option+E, then capital Y.

Web Development

This section presents information specific to Dutch. For general information about developing non-English Web sites, see the Encoding Tutorial or the Web Layout sections.

Historical Encodings

Unicode (utf-8) is the preferred encoding for Web sites. However, the following historic encodings may still be encountered.

If possible, you should transition to Unicode.

Language Tags

Language Tags allow browsers and other software to process text more efficiently. They are also important for optimal screen reader accessibility.

Dutch Codes

Note: Some dialects are distinct enough to have been assigned language codes.

Frisian Codes

HTML Entity Codes

Use these codes to input accented letters in HTML. For instance, if you want to type één you would type één.

The numbers in parentheses are the numeric codes assigned in Unicode encoding. For instance, because é is number 233, één can also be used to input één.These numbers are also used with the Windows Alt codes listed above.

Dutch HTML Entity Codes
Accent A E I O U Y
Acute
&Vacute;

(Cap)
Á
Á
(193)
É
É
(201)
Í
Í
(205)
Ó
Ó
(211)
Ú
Ú
(218)
Ý
Ý
(221)
Acute (Lower) á
á
(225)
é
é
(233)
í
í
(237)
ó
ó
(243)
ú
ú
(250)
ý
ý
(253)
Umlaut
&Vuml;
(Cap)
Ä
Ä
(196)
Ë
Ë
(203)
Ï
Ï
(207)
Ö
Ö
(214)
Ü
Ü
(220)
Ÿ
Ÿ
Umlaut (Lower) ä
ä
(228)
ë
ë
(235)
ï
ï
(239)
ö
ö
(246)
ü
ü
(252)
Ÿ
Ÿ
(255)
Grave
&Vgrave;

(Cap)
À
À
(192)
È
È
(200)
Ì
Ì
(204)
Ò
Ò
(210)
Ù
Ù
(217)
Grave (Lower) à
à
(224)
è
è
(232)
ì
&igrave
(236)
ò
ò
(242)
ù
ù
(249)
 
Circumflex
&Vcirc;
(Cap)
Â
Â
(194)
Ê
Ê
(202)
Î
Î
(206)
Ô
Ô
(212)
Û
Û
(219)
 
Circumflex (Lower) â
â
(226)
ê
ê
(234)
î
î
(238)
ô
ô
(244)
û
û
(251)
 

Dutch Currency

Currency Codes
Sym Punctuation
ƒ ƒ (Dutch florin)
€

European Quote Marks

Many modern texts use American style quotes, but if you wish to include European style quote marks, here are the codes. Note that these codes may not work in older browsers. Dutch quotations in the Netherlands use right facing bottom and top quotes as in the following example – „This is a quotation.” Other areas may use different conventions.

Entity Codes for Quotation Marks
Sym HTMl Entity Code
„(bottom quote)
‚(single bottom quote)
”(right curly quote)
’(right single curly quote)
« « (left angle)
» » (right angle)
‹ (left single angle)
› (right single angle)
“(left curly quote)
‘(left single curly quote)
– (en dash)
— (em dash)

Linux/Unix

Some content is in Dutch.

Dutch, Afrikaans & Frisian Languages

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Last Modified: Tuesday, 28-Mar-2017 13:56:25 EDT