Teaching and Learning with Technology

Computing With Accents and Foreign Scripts

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Fula (Fulfulde/Fulani/Pulaar)

This Page

  1. About Fula
  2. Fonts for Implosive Consonants and Tones
  3. Windows Implosive Consonants and Tones
  4. Macintosh Imposive Consonant and Tones
  5. Browser Setup for Internet
  6. HTML Unicode Character Codes for Implosive Consonants and Tones
    1. Language Codes: ff (Fula)

About Fula

Fula (also known as Pulaar, Fulani and FulFulde) is spoken in many parts of West Africa including Guinea, Senegal, Sierra Leone and elsewhere.

Modern Fula Script

Modern Fula is written in the Roman alphabet, but includes extra letters for implosive consonants and nasals, and so requires special font keyboard support separate from languages like Spanish and French.

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Fonts for Implosive Consonants

The following fonts include characters for Fula spelling

Phonetics Fonts

 

Windows Implosive Consonants and Tones

Character Map

The Character Map utility is free on all Windows machines and can be used to copy and paste accented letters and other foreign language characters characters into any Windows application. The Character Map is similar to the Insert Symbol tool found in some Windows applications such as Microsoft Word.

  1. Click on the Windows Start menu, then All Programs (Start » All Programs) on the lower left of your screen.
  2. Select Programs » Accessories » System Tools » Character Map.
    NOTE: On some PC's, the Character Map may be in another location under Accessories or the Start menu.
  3. A window should open which displays a series of characters in a grid.
  4. Make sure that the Font from the dropdown list is Arial Unicode MS or one of the other phonetics fonts listed above.
  5. Use the scroll bars on the right to look for the characters you want.
  6. Double-click on any character you wish to insert then click the Select button to make it appear in the Characters to Copy field. You can Select more than one character at this time.
  7. Highlight one or more of the characters in the Characters to Copy you wish to insert then click the Copy button.
  8. Minimize from the Character Map window, and open or switch to the application window in which you wish to insert a the character.
  9. Position your cursor in the location you wish to insert the character.
  10. Under the Edit Menu, choose Paste (or use the keyboard shortcut Control+V). The character should appear.
  11. If necessary, change the font of the inserted character in the new document to the one selected in the Character Map.

Windows Alt Codes (Word 2003/2007)

If you are using a recent version of Microsoft Word (2003+), you can use the  following ALT key plus a numeric code can be used to type a Latin character (accented letter or punctuation symbol) in any Windows application.

Notes on the Codes

Fula Word 2003/2007 ALT Codes

Capitals
Sym ALT Codes
Ɓ ALT+0385
Capital implosive B
Ɗ ALT+0394
Capital implosive D
Ŋ ALT+0330
Capital engma
Ñ ALT+0209
Capital N-tilde
Ɲ ALT+0413
Capital palatal hook N
Ƴ ALT+0435
Capital implosive Y
Lowercase
Sym ALT Codes
ɓ ALT+0595
Lower implosive B
ɗ ALT+0599
Lower implosive D
ŋ ALT+0331
Lower engma
ñ ALT+0241
Lower N-tilde
ɲ ALT+0626
Lower palatal hook N
ƴ ALT+0436 implosive Y
 

Windows Freeware Keyboard Utilities

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Activate Macintosh Keyboards for Typing

OS X Unicode Numeric Option Codes

If you are working with a Unicode aware application such as Microsoft Office 2004, Text Edit (free with OS X ), Dreamweaver or Netscape 7 Composer /Mozilla Composer you can activate the Unicode Hex keyboard and use the following option codes.

Fula Mac Unicode Hex Keyboard Option Codes

Capitals
Let Option Code
Ɓ Option+0181
Capital implosive B
Ɗ Option+018A
Capital implosive G
Ŋ Option+014A
Capital engma
Ñ Option+N, Shift+N
Capital N-Tilde
Ɲ Option+019D
Capital palatal hook N
Ƴ Option+01B3
Capital implosive Y
Lower Case
Let Option Code
ɓ Option+0253
Lower implosive B
ɗ Option+0257
Lower implosive G
ŋ Option+014B
Lower engma
Ñ Option+N, N
Lower N-Tilde
ɲ Option+0272
Lower palatal hook N
ƴ Option+01B4
Lower implosive Y
 

Note: The Unicode Hex Input keyboard must be active in order to use the numeric codes; otherwise only the numbers appear.

Character Palette

You can the Character Pallette to these characters. All characters are located in Symbols folder under "Phonetic Symbols".

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Browser Setup

Test Site

This translation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights into Fula includes implosive consonants:

www.unhchr.ch/udhr/lang/fum1.htm

Recommended Browsers

For implosive consonants and tones, the following browsers have the most consistent results.

Note on Internet Explorer

Internet Explorer for Windows may not display implosive consonants by default. Users who prefer Internet Explorer for Windows should set the Latin font to Arial Unicode MS or some other Unicode script with phonetic symbol support.

Internet Explorer for Macintosh does not support implosive consonant symbols.

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Unicode Accent Codes for HTML

Fula Encoding and Language Code

These are the codes which allow browsers and screen readers to process data as the appropriate language. All letters in codes are lower case.

See Using Encoding and Language Codes for more information on the meaning and implementation of these codes.

The HTML Entity Codes

Use these codes to input consonants in HTML. For instance, if you want to type eɓe you would type eɓe. These numbers are also used with the Windows Alt codes listed above.

Fula HTML Entity Codes

Capitals
Let Entity Code
Ɓ Ɓ
Capital implosive B
Ɗ Ɗ
Capital implosive D
Ŋ Ŋ
Capital Engma
Ñ Ñ
Capital N-tilde
Ɲ Ɲ
Capital palatal hook N
Ƴ Ƴ
Capital implosive Y
Lower Case
Let Entity Code
ɓ ɓ
Lower implosive B
ɗ ɗ
Lower implosive D
ŋ ŋ
Lower Engma
ñ ñ
Lower N-Tilde
ɲ ɲ
Lower palatal hook N
ƴ ƴ
Lower implosive Y
 

NOTE: Because these are Unicode characters, the formatting may not exactly match that of the surrounding text depending on the browser.

Entity Codes: Tones

Using Encoding and Language Codes

Computers process text by assuming a certain encoding or a system of matching electronic data with visual text characters. Whenever you develop a Web site you need to make sure the proper encoding is specified in the header tags; otherwise the browser may default to U.S. settings and not display the text properly.

To declare an encoding, insert or inspect the following meta-tag at the top of your HTML file, then replace "???" with one of the encoding codes listed above. If you are not sure, use utf-8 as the encoding.

Generic Encoding Template

<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=??? ">
...
<head>

Declare Unicode

<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8 ">
...
<head>

XHTML

The final close slash must be included after the final quote mark in the encoding header tag if you are using XHTML

Declare Unicode in XHTML

<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
...
<head>

No Encoding Declared

If no encoding is declared, then the browser uses the default setting, which in the U.S. is typically Latin-1. Some display errors may occur.

Language Tags

Language tags are also suggested so that search engines and screen readers parse the language of a page. These are metadata tags which indicate the language of a page, not devices to trigger translation. Visit the Language Tag page to view information on where to insert it.

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Last Modified: Tuesday, 04-Jun-2013 12:39:42 EDT