Teaching and Learning with Technology

Computing With Accents and Foreign Scripts

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Georgian

This Page

  1. About the Georgian Script
  2. Activate Keyboards for Typing
  3. Browser and Font Recommendations
  4. Web Development
    1. Language Code: ka
  5. Georgian Unicode Chart (New Page)
  6. Links

About the Script

Georgian is a Kartvelian (South Caucasian) language from the Republic of Gerogia (or Sakartvelo) and neighboring countries, and has very rich set of consonants. Gerogian is part of a set of languages originating in the Caucasian Mountains, but is the most politically powerful Kartvelian language. Other Caucasian languages include Chechen and Abkhaz.

There were actually two alphabets created for Georgian - the Mkhedruli alphabet and the older Asomtavrule/Nuskha-kchuri alphabet. The earliest written Gerogian texts date from the early 5th century.

Georgian Language

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Activating Keyboards for Fonts

Basic Setup

In order to integrate foreign scripts into your computer, you must set up "keyboard" or input utilities in your operating system. These utilities will allow you to switch between typing English and other languages in word processors and Web tools. This process will also make sure the correct fonts are installed and available on your operating system.

See instructions for Setting up Keyboards for details.

Windows

Other Applications

Windows XP - Microsoft includes a Georgian keyboard, but they may need to be installed from the Windows System disk. See the Windows Complex Scripts Keyboard Instructions for details on how to activate the keyboard. To see where the critical keys are, go to the Microsoft Keyboard Layouts Page

Windows Vista Only - Microsoft includes a Georgian QWERTY keyboard in Windows Vista.

Macintosh

As of version 10.3, Apple does not provide a Georgian keyboard, but there are some freeware utilities available. Note that OS X applications only work with Unicode aware applications like Microsoft Office 2004, Text Edit, Dreamweaver MX 2004, and others.

Install OS X Keyboards

  1. Click the link for Georgian_X.sit
  2. After the file has been downloaded to the desktop, move it into the Library/KeyboardLayouts Folder.
  3. Restart your computer.
  4. Open the System Preferences, then International. Check the Option for Georgian. See the Mac Keyboards page for details.
  5. Open Word 2004, or Text Edit, then switch US flag icon on the upper right to the Georgian keyboard.

Unicode Chart with Keyboard Codes

See the Unicode chart for Georgian to see OS X Hex codes and HTML entity codes. Note that the correct Unicode font must be installed in order for the codes to work. See the Browsers Section for details.

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Browser and Font Recommendations

Fonts by Platform

Additional freeware fonts can be downloaded from from the sites below. Note that not all these fonts may work on System 9 for Macintosh, but will work in Windows and OS X .

Recommended Browsers

For best results, use a browser which supports Unicode and a wide range of older encodings. Click link in list to view configuration instructions. You will be asked to match a script with a font.

Unicode Georgian Test Site

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Web Development

Georgian Encoding and Language Tags

These are the codes which allow browsers and screen readers to process data as the appropriate language. All letters in codes are lower case.

Using Encoding and Language Codes

Computers process text by assuming a certain encoding or a system of matching electronic data with visual text characters. Whenever you develop a Web site you need to make sure the proper encoding is specified in the header tags; otherwise the browser may default to U.S. settings and not display the text properly.

To declare an encoding, insert or inspect the following meta-tag at the top of your HTML file, then replace "???" with one of the encoding codes listed above. If you are not sure, use utf-8 as the encoding.

Generic Encoding Template

<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=??? ">
...
<head>

Declare Unicode

<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8 ">
...
<head>

XHTML

The final close slash must be included after the final quote mark in the encoding header tag if you are using XHTML

Declare Unicode in XHTML

<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
...
<head>

No Encoding Declared

If no encoding is declared, then the browser uses the default setting, which in the U.S. is typically Latin-1. Some display errors may occur.

Language Tags

Language tags are also suggested so that search engines and screen readers parse the language of a page. These are metadata tags which indicate the language of a page, not devices to trigger translation. Visit the Language Tag page to view information on where to insert it.

Inputting and Editing Text in an HTML Editor

One option is to use Dreamweaver, Microsoft Expression or other Web editor and change the keyboard to the correct script. This will allow you to type content in directly with the appropriate script. However, it is important to verify that the correct encoding is specified in the Web page header.

Another option is to compose the basic text in an international or foreign language text editor or word processor and export the content as an HTML or text file with the appropriate encoding. This file could be opened in another HTML editor such as Dreamweaver or Microsoft Expression, and edited for formatting.

Other Web Tools

For Web tools such as Blogs at Penn State, Facebook, Twitter, del.icio.us, Flicker, and others, users can typically change the keyboard and input text. In most cases, this content will be encoded as Unicode.

Unicode Entity Codes

Georgian numeric Unicode entity codes can be used for small pieces of text when other methods to not work.

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Links

Georgian Language

Georgian Unicode Fonts

Windows

Macintosh

Linux

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Last Modified: Tuesday, 04-Jun-2013 12:39:42 EDT