Teaching and Learning with Technology

Computing With Accents and Foreign Scripts

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  1. About Igbo
  2. Fonts for Dotted Vowels
  3. Windoows Alt Codes and Keyboard Utilities
  4. Macintosh Extended Keyboard Accent Codes
  5. Browser Setup for Internet
  6. Unicode Character Codes for HTML
    1. Language Codes: ig

About Igbo

Igbo is spoken in Eastern Nigeria, Cameroon and elsewhere.

Igbo Dotted Vowels

Igbo is written in the Roman alphabet but includes dotted vowels, and so requires special font keyboard support separate from languages like Spanish and French.

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Fonts for Dotted Vowels

The following fonts include characters for dotted vowels found in Igbo spelling.

Phonetics Fonts

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Windows Accent Codes & Utilities

Windows Word 2003/2007 Alt Codes

If you are using a recent version of Microsoft Word (2003+), you can use the  following ALT key plus a numeric code can be used to type a Latin character (accented letter or punctuation symbol) in any Windows application.

Notes on the Codes

NOTE: If these codes do not work, you may need to use the Character Map utility.

Igbo Dotted Vowel Codes
Vwl ALT Code
Capital I dot
Lower I Dot
Caiptal O Dot
Lower O Dot
Capital U Dot
Lower U Dot
Lower N Dot
Upper N Dot

Windows Freeware Igbo Keyboard Utility

A freeware keyboard utility for Igbo is available from Open Road. Read installation instructions for details.

Windows Vista

Igbo support has also been expanded in Windows Vista.

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Macintosh OS X Extended Keyboard Accent Codes

Apple has provided additional keyboards which allow you to enter Old English characters via Unicode. If you are working with a Unicode aware application such as Microsoft Office 2004, Text Edit (free with OS X ), Dreamweaver or Netscape 7 Composer /Mozilla Composer you can one of several keyboards to input the characters.

Extended Keyboard

For dotted vowels, you can switch to the Extended Roman keyboard (10.2) or the U.S. Extended keyboard (10.3) then use the following codes:

Mac Extended Keyboard Codes
Dot Below ọ,Ọ

Option+X, V

Dot Above ṅ,Ṅ Option+W, N

For print work, there are also a number of freeware and shareware phonetics and classics fonts.  You can check the Summer Institute for Linguistics Fonts in Cyberspace for more details.

For the Web, you can use the Unicode numeric codes listed below.

System 9

For print work, there are a number of freeware and shareware phonetics and classics fonts.  You can check the Summer Institute for Linguistics Fonts in Cyberspace for more details.

For the Web, you can use the Unicode numeric codes listed below.

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Browser Setup

Recommended Browsers

For dotted consonants, the following browsers have the most consistent results.

Note on Internet Explorer

Internet Explorer for Windows may not display implosive consonants by default. Users who prefer Internet Explorer for Windows should set the Latin font to Arial Unicode MS or some other Unicode script with phonetic symbol support.

Internet Explorer for Macintosh does not support implosive consonant symbols.

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HTML Accent Codes

Igbo Encoding and Language Tags

These are the codes which allow browsers and screen readers to process data as the appropriate language. All letters in codes are lower case.

See Using Encoding and Language Codes for more information on the meaning and implementation of these codes.

HTML Entity Codes

Use these codes to input accented letters in HTML. For instance, if you wanted to type Ụwa, you would input Ụwa into the HTML code.

Igbo Dotted Vowel Codes
Let Entity Code
Capital I dot
Lower I dot
Capital O Dot
ọ (lower)
Lower O Dot
Capital U Dot
Lower U Dot
Capital N Dot
Lower N Dot

Using Encoding and Language Codes

Computers process text by assuming a certain encoding or a system of matching electronic data with visual text characters. Whenever you develop a Web site you need to make sure the proper encoding is specified in the header tags; otherwise the browser may default to U.S. settings and not display the text properly.

To declare an encoding, insert or inspect the following meta-tag at the top of your HTML file, then replace "???" with one of the encoding codes listed above. If you are not sure, use utf-8 as the encoding.

Generic Encoding Template

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=??? ">

Declare Unicode

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8 ">


The final close slash must be included after the final quote mark in the encoding header tag if you are using XHTML

Declare Unicode in XHTML

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />

No Encoding Declared

If no encoding is declared, then the browser uses the default setting, which in the U.S. is typically Latin-1. Some display errors may occur.

Language Tags

Language tags are also suggested so that search engines and screen readers parse the language of a page. These are metadata tags which indicate the language of a page, not devices to trigger translation. Visit the Language Tag page to view information on where to insert it.

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Last Modified: Tuesday, 04-Jun-2013 12:39:57 EDT