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Unicode Entity Codes for Math

Return to Math Symbols Page

Go to the About the Codes section to see how they are implemented.

This Page

  1. Greek Letters New Page
  2. Common Arithmetic & Algebra
  3. Superscript and Subcript
  4. Common Statistics
  5. Fractions
  6. Commom Measurement Symbols
  7. Common Calculus
  8. Common Letter Symbols
  9. Common Logic and Set Notation
  10. Common Geometric Symbols
  11. Common Equivalence & Proportion
  12. Other Mathematical Symbols
  13. About the Codes

External Links

Information on this page was taken from these sources and may include additional informaiton not available on this page.

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Common Arithmetic & Alebgra

-- means no HTML entity code exists and that a numeric code must be used.

Codes for Common Math Symbols
Character Name Character Entity Num
Entity
Hex
Entity
LESS THAN < &lt; &#60;
GREATER THAN> &gt; &#62;
LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO &le; &#8804;
GREATER THAN OR EQUAL TO &ge; &#8805;
PLUS OR MINUS ± &plusmn; &#177;
NOT EQUALS &ne; &#8800;
DIVISION SIGN ÷ &divide; &#247;
TIMES X × &times; &#215;
MINUS &minus; &#8722;
DIVISION SLASH -- &#8725;
FRACTION SLASH &frasl &#8260;
SQUARE ROOT RADICAL &radic; &#8730;
CUBE ROOT -- &#8731;
FOURTH ROOT -- &#8732;
INFINITY &infin; &#8734;
ALEF INFINITY SYMBOL &alefsym; &#8501;
FUNCTION ITALIC F ƒ &fnof; &#402;
PRIME (single quote) &prime; &#8242;
DOUBLE PRIME (double quote) &Prime; &#8243;
TRIPLE PRIME (triple quote) -- &#8244;
THEREFORE (Triangular Dots) &there4; &#8756;
DOT OPERATOR &sdot; &#8901;
SUPERSCRIPT TWO ¹ &sup1; &#185;
SUPERSCRIPT TWO ² &sup2; &#178;
SUPERSCRIPT THREE ³ &sup3; &#179;
LEFT ANGLE BRACKET &lang; &#9001;
RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET &rang; &#9002;
LEFT CEILING BRACKET &lceil; &#8968;
RIGHT CEILING BRACKET &rceil; &#8969;
LEFT FLOOR BRACKET &lceil; &#8970;
RIGHT FLOOR BRACKET &rceil; &#8971;
CIRCLED PLUS (Direct Sum) &oplus; &#8853;
CIRCLED TIMES (Vector Product) &otimes; &#8855;

 

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Superscript and Subscript

HTML

With the Tags

You can use the <sup></sup> tag to create superscript text and <sub></sub> to create su-script text. Or you can use the codes below.

Code: x<sup>x+1</sup>
Result: xx+1

Code: x<sub>i+1</sub>
Result: xi+1

With the Codes

Code: x&sup2;
Result:

Code: x&#8308;
Result: x⁴

Superscript Chart

Codes for Superscript Characters
Character Name Character Num
Entity
Hex
Entity
SUPERSCRIPT ZERO&#8304;
SUPERSCRIPT ONE
Entity Code = &sup1;
¹ &#185;
SUPERSCRIPT TWO
Entity Code = &sup2;
² &#178;
SUPERSCRIPT THREE
Entity Code = &sup3;
³ &#179;
SUPERSCRIPT FOUR&#8308;
SUPERSCRIPT FIVE&#8309;
SUPERSCRIPT SIX&#8310;
SUPERSCRIPT SEVEN&#8311;
SUPERSCRIPT EIGHT&#8312;
SUPERSCRIPT NINE&#8313;
SUPERSCRIPT PLUS SIGN&#8314;
SUPERSCRIPT MINUS&#8315;
SUPERSCRIPT EQUALS SIGN&#8316;
SUPERSCRIPT LEFT PARENTHESIS&#8317;
SUPERSCRIPT RIGHT PARENTHESIS&#8318;
SUPERSCRIPT LATIN SMALL LETTER I&#8305;
SUPERSCRIPT LATIN SMALL LETTER N&#8319;

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Subscript Codes

Codes for Subscript Characters
Character Name Character Num
Entity
Hex
Entity
SUBSCRIPT ZERO&#8320;
SUBSCRIPT ONE&#8321;
SUBSCRIPT TWO&#8322;
SUBSCRIPT THREE&#8323;
SUBSCRIPT FOUR&#8324;
SUBSCRIPT FIVE&#8325;
SUBSCRIPT SIX&#8326;
SUBSCRIPT SEVEN&#8327;
SUBSCRIPT EIGHT&#8328;
SUBSCRIPT NINE&#8329;
SUBSCRIPT PLUS SIGN&#8330;
SUBSCRIPT MINUS&#8331;
SUBSCRIPT EQUALS SIGN&#8332;
SUBSCRIPT LEFT PARENTHESIS&#8333;
SUBSCRIPT RIGHT PARENTHESIS&#8334;
LATIN SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER A&#8336;
LATIN SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER E&#8337;
LATIN SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER O&#8338;
LATIN SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER I&#7522;
LATIN SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER R&#7523;
LATIN SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER U&#7524;
LATIN SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER V&#7525;
LATIN SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER X&#8339;
GREEK SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER BETA&#7526;
GREEK SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER GAMMA&#7527;
GREEK SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER RHO&#7528;
GREEK SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER PHI&#7529;
GREEK SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER CHI&#7530;

Superscript and Subscript

Check these references for other methods to implement superscript/subscript and extra fractions

 

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Fractions

These codes allow fractions to be represented with typographically smaller numerators and denominators, but they can be replaced by other ways of typing a fraction (e.g. "1/2"). CSS Styling can also be used to achieve the same effect as described on Got Unicode and Lars Bruzelius.
Note: The code -- means no HTML entity code exists and that a numeric code must be used.

Codes for Fracctions
Character Name Character Entity Num
Entity
Hex
Entity
VULGAR FRACTION 1/4 ¼ &frac14; &#188;
VULGAR FRACTION 1/2 ½ &frac12; &#189;
VULGAR FRACTION 3/4 ¾ &frac34; &#190;
VULGAR FRACTION 1/3 -- &#8531;
VULGAR FRACTION 2/3 -- &#8532;
VULGAR FRACTION 1/5 -- &#8533;
VULGAR FRACTION 2/5 -- &#8354;
VULGAR FRACTION 3/5 -- &#8535;
VULGAR FRACTION 4/5 -- &#8536;
VULGAR FRACTION 1/6 -- &#8537;
VULGAR FRACTION 5/6 -- &#8538;
VULGAR FRACTION 1/8 -- &#8539;
VULGAR FRACTION 3/8 -- &#8540;
VULGAR FRACTION 5/8 -- &#8541;
VULGAR FRACTION 7/8 -- &#8542;

 

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Common Statistics

-- means no HTML entity code exists and that a numeric code must be used.

Codes for Statistics Symbols
Character Name Character Entity Num
Entity
Hex
Entity
LOWER CASE MU (Mean) μ &mu; &#956;
LOWER CASE SIGMA (Standard Deviation) σ &sigma; &#963;
LOWER CASE CHI χ &chi; &#967;
CAPITAL PI N-ARY PRODUCT &prod; &#8721;
N-ARY COPRODUCT (upside down capital pi) -- &#8720;

X-Bar, P-Hat and D-Bar

Some codes like that for (X-bar) are actually a combination of two codes - the base letter x plus a code for the line above (&#772: or   ̄). Note that a capital letter (e.g. the D in D-bar) may need to be reduced in size to accomodate the placement of the combining diacritic.

Note: These symbols use combining characters and may not appear correctly in older browsers such as Safari 2.

Statistics Symbols using Combining Diacritics
Character Name Character HTML Code
X-Bar (Average) x&#772;
P-Hat p&#770;
D-Bar D̄ <span style="font-size:80%">D</span>&#772;

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Measurement Symbols

Common Symbols

Codes for Measurement Symbols
Character Name Character Entity Num
Entity
Hex
Entity
DEGREE SYMBOL ° &deg; &#176;
MICRO MU SYMBOL µ &micro; &#181;
SINGLE PRIME (feet, degree minutes) &prime; &#8242;
DOUBLE PRIME (inches, degree minutes) &Prime;Capital P R I M E &#8242;
PER MILLE (1/1000th) &permil; &#8240;

 

Calculus

Common Calculus Entity Codes

Codes for Calculus Symbols
Character Name Character Entity Num
Entity
Hex
Entity
INTEGRAL &int; &#8747;
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL &part; &#8706;
INCREMENT (Difference or capital Delta) Δ &Delta; &#8710;
NABLA (Backward Difference, Grad or upside down triangle) &nabla; &#8711;

Additional Integral Symbols

These symbols have numeric entity codes only.

Additional Calculus Symbols
Character Name Character Num
Entity
Hex
Entity
DOUBLE INTEGRAL &#8748;
TRIPLE INTEGRAL &#8749;
QUADRUPLE INTEGRAL &#10764;
CONTOUR INTEGRAL &#8750;
SURFACE INTEGRAL &#8751;
VOLUME INTEGRAL &#8752;
CLOCKWISE INTEGRAL &#8753;
ANTICLOCKWISE INTEGRAL &#10769;
CLOCKWISE CONTOUR INTEGRAL &#8754;
ANTICLOCKWISE CONTOUR INTEGRAL &#8755;

 

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Letter Symbols

Common Letter Symbols
Character Name Character Entity Num
Entity
Hex
Entity
INFINITY (Sideways 8) &infin; &#8734;
ALEF INFINITY SYMBOL &alefsym; &#8501;
WEIERSTRASS POWER SET (Script Capital P) &weierp; &#8472;
IMAGINARY Part (Blackletter I) &image; &#8465;
REAL NUMBER (Blackletter R) &real;Capital P R I M E &#8476;
DOUBLE-STRUCK REAL NUMBER (Doublestruck R) -- &#8477;
COMPLEX NUMBERS (Doublestruck C) -- &#8450;
NATURAL NUMBERS (Doublestruck N) -- &#8469;
PRIME NUMBERS (Doublestruck P) -- &#8473;
RATIONAL NUMBERS (Doublestruck Q) -- &#8474;
INTEGERS (Doublestruck Z) -- &#8484;

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Logic & Set Theory

-- means no HTML entity code exists and that a numeric code must be used.

Codes for Logic and Set Theory Symbols
Character Name Character Entity Num
Entity
Hex
Entity
FOR ALL (Upside-down A) &forall;  &#8704;
COMPLEMENT (Thin C) -- &#8705;
THERE EXISTS (Backwards E) &exist;  &#8707;
THERE DOES NOT EXIST (Backwards E with slash) -- &#8708;
EMPTY SET (O slash) &empty;  &#8709;
NOT SYMBOL (Corner) ¬ &not;  &#172;
TILDE (Alternate Not Symbol) ˜ &tilde;  --
LOGICAL AND (Wedge or Upside down V Symbol) &and;  &#8743;
LOGICAL OR (V Symbol) &or;  &#8744;
XOR -- &#8891;
NAND -- &#8892;
NOR -- &#8893;
INTERSECTION (Cap or Upside Down U) &cap;  &#8745;
UNION (Cup or U Symbol) &cup;  &#8746;
ELEMENT OF &isin;  &#8712;
NOT AN ELEMENT OF &notin;  &#8713;
SMALL ELEMENT OF -- &#8714;
CONTAINS AS MEMBER &ni;  &#8715;
DOES NOT CONTAIN AS MEMBER -- &#8716;
SMALL CONTAINS AS MEMBER -- &#8717;
SET MINUS -- &#8726;
SUBSET OF (Sideways U with cap to left) &sub;  &#8834;
SUPERSET OF (Sideways U with cap to right) &sup;  &#8835;
NOT A SUBSET OF (Subset with Slash) &nsub;  &#8836;
NOT A SUPERSET OF (Superset with slash) -- &#8837;
SUBSET OF OR EQUAL TO (Subset with line below) &sube;  &#8838;
SUPERSET OF OR EQUAL TO (Superset with line below) &supe;  &#8839;
NEITHER A SUBSET OF NOR EQUAL TO -- &#8840;
NEITHER A SUPERSET OF NOR EQUAL TO -- &#8841;
SUBSET OF WITH NOT EQUAL TO -- &#8842;
SUPERSET OF WITH NOT EQUAL TO -- &#8843;
DIAMOND OPERATOR
(Possibility)
-- &#8900;
ASYMPTOTICALLY EQUAL TO
One to one Correspondence
-- &#8771;
NOT ASYMPTOTICALLY EQUAL TO -- &#8772;
MULTISET (U with arrow) -- &#8844;
MULTISET MULTIPLICATION (U with dot in center) -- &#8845;
MULTISET UNION (U with plus in center) -- &#8846;
DOUBLE SUBSET -- &#8912;
DOUBLE SUPERSET -- &#8913;
DOUBLE INTERSECTION -- &#8914;
DOUBLE UNION -- &#8915;
N-ARY LOGICAL AND -- &#8896;
N-ARY LOGICAL OR -- &#8897;
N-ARY INTERSECTION/td> -- &#8898;
N-ARY UNION -- &#8899;
CURLY LOGICAL OR -- &#8910;
CURLY LOGICAL AND -- &#8911;
CIRCLED PLUS (Direct Sum) &oplus; &#8853;
CIRCLED TIMES (Vector Product) &otimes; &#8855;
CIRCLED MINUS -- &#8854;
CIRCLED DIVISION SLASH -- &#8856;

Other Element Of Symbols

Character Name Character Num
Entity
Hex
Entity
Variants of Element of Symbols
ELEMENT OF WITH LONG HORIZONTAL STROKE &#8946;
ELEMENT OF WITH VERTICAL BAR AT END OF HORIZONTAL STROKE &#8947;
SMALL ELEMENT OF WITH VERTICAL BAR AT END OF HORIZONTAL STROKE &#8948;
ELEMENT OF WITH DOT ABOVE &#8949;
ELEMENT OF WITH OVERBAR &#8950;
SMALL ELEMENT OF WITH OVERBAR &#8951;
ELEMENT OF WITH UNDERBAR &#8952;
ELEMENT OF WITH TWO HORIZONTAL STROKES &#8953;
CONTAINS WITH LONG HORIZONTAL STROKE &#8954;
CONTAINS WITH VERTICAL BAR AT END OF HORIZONTAL STROKE &#8955;
SMALL CONTAINS WITH VERTICAL BAR AT END OF HORIZONTAL STROKE &#8956;
CONTAINS WITH OVERBAR &#8957;
SMALL CONTAINS WITH OVERBAR &#8958;
NOTATION BAG MEMBERSHIP &#8959;

 

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Geometric Symbols

Note: The entity code for the Angle Symbol (∠) is &ang; and the code for the perpendicular angle (⊥) is &perp;.
Otherwise, these symbols have numeric codes only.

Angles and Lines

Codes for Angle/Line Symbols
Character Name Character Num
Entity
Hex
Entity
RIGHT ANGLE &#8735;
ANGLE
Entity Code = &ang;
&#8736;
MEASURED ANGLE &#8737;
SPHERICAL ANGLE &#8738;
DIVIDES &#8739;
DOES NOT DIVIDE &#8740;
PARALLEL TO &#8741;
NOT PARALLEL TO &#8742;
RIGHT ANGLE WITH ARC &#8894;
RIGHT TRIANGLE &#8895;
UP TACK (Perpendicular)
Entity Code = &perp;
&#8869;
RIGHT TACK &#8866;
LEFT TACK &#8867;
DOWN TACK &#8868;

Logical Proofs

Note: The entity code for the Therefore Symbol (∴) is &there4;. Otherwise, these symbols have numeric codes only.

Codes for Symbols in Proofs
Character Name Character Num
Entity
Hex
Entity
THEREFORE (Triangular Dots)
Entity Code = &there4;
&#8756;
BECAUSE (Upside down Triangular Dots) &#8757;
PROPORTIONAL TO
Entity Code = &prop;
&#8733;
END OF PROOF (solid rectangle) &#8718;

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Common Equivalence and Proportion Operators

Common Equivalence Operators

Codes for Equivalence Statements (e.g. Not Equals)
Character Name Character Entity Num
Entity
Hex
Entity
NOT EQUALS &ne; &#8800;
APPROXIMATELY EQUAL &cong; &#8773;
ALMOST EQUAL (ASYMPTOTIC) &asymp; &#8776;
NOT ALMOST EQUAL TO -- &#8777;
TILDE SIMILAR TO &sim; &#8764;
IDENTICAL TO (three lines) &equiv; &#8801;
NOT IDENTICAL TO -- &#8802;

Other Equivalence Symbols

More Equivalence Symbols
Character Name Character Num
Entity
Hex
Entity
STRICTLY EQUIVALENT TO &#8803;
NOT IDENTICAL TO &#8802;
LESS-THAN OVER EQUAL TO &#8806;
GREATER-THAN OVER EQUAL TO &#8807;
LESS-THAN BUT NOT EQUAL TO &#8808;
GREATER-THAN BUT NOT EQUAL TO &#8809;
MUCH LESS-THAN &#8810;
MUCH GREATER-THAN &#8811;
BETWEEN &#8812;
NOT EQUIVALENT TO &#8813;
NOT LESS-THAN &#8814;
NOT GREATER-THAN &#8815;
NEITHER LESS-THAN NOR EQUAL TO &#8816;
NEITHER GREATER-THAN NOR EQUAL TO &#8817;
LESS-THAN OR EQUIVALENT TO &#8818;
GREATER-THAN OR EQUIVALENT TO &#8819;
NEITHER LESS-THAN NOR EQUIVALENT TO &#8820;
NEITHER GREATER-THAN NOR EQUIVALENT TO &#8821;
LESS-THAN OR GREATER-THAN &#8822;
GREATER-THAN OR LESS-THAN &#8823;
NEITHER LESS-THAN NOR GREATER-THAN &#8824;
NEITHER GREATER-THAN NOR LESS-THAN &#8825;
NOT TILDE &#8769;
MINUS TILDE &#8770;
ASYMPTOTICALLY EQUAL TO &#8771;
NOT ASYMPTOTICALLY EQUAL TO &#8772;
APPROXIMATELY BUT NOT ACTUALLY EQUAL TO &#8774;
NEITHER APPROXIMATELY NOR ACTUALLY EQUAL TO &#8775;
NOT ALMOST EQUAL TO &#8777;
ALMOST EQUAL OR EQUAL TO &#8778;
TRIPLE TILDE &#8779;
ALL EQUAL TO &#8780;

 

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Other Mathematical Symbols

These symbols have numeric codes only.

Math Symbol Codes
Character Name Character Entity Hex Entity
MINUS-OR-PLUS SIGN &#8723;
DOT PLUS &#8724;
ASTERISK OPERATOR &#8727;
RING OPERATOR &#8728;
BULLET OPERATOR &#8729;
PROPORTIONAL TO &#8733;
RATIO &#8758;
PROPORTION &#8759;
DOT MINUS &#8760;
EXCESS &#8761;
GEOMETRIC PROPORTION &#8762;
HOMOTHETIC &#8763;
TILDE OPERATOR &#8764;
REVERSED TILDE &#8765;
INVERTED LAZY S &#8766;
SINE WAVE &#8767;
WREATH PRODUCT &#8768;
EQUIVALENT TO &#8781;
GEOMETRICALLY EQUIVALENT TO &#8782;
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN &#8783;
APPROACHES THE LIMIT &#8784;
GEOMETRICALLY EQUAL TO &#8785;
APPROXIMATELY EQUAL TO OR THE IMAGE OF &#8786;
IMAGE OF OR APPROXIMATELY EQUAL TO &#8787;
COLON EQUALS &#8788;
EQUALS COLON &#8789;
RING IN EQUAL TO &#8790;
RING EQUAL TO &#8791;
CORRESPONDS TO &#8792;
ESTIMATES &#8793;
EQUIANGULAR TO &#8794;
STAR EQUALS &#8795;
DELTA EQUAL TO &#8796;
EQUAL TO BY DEFINITION &#8797;
MEASURED BY &#8798;
QUESTIONED EQUAL TO &#8799;
PRECEDES &#8826;
SUCCEEDS &#8827;
PRECEDES OR EQUAL TO &#8828;
SUCCEEDS OR EQUAL TO &#8829;
PRECEDES OR EQUIVALENT TO &#8830;
SUCCEEDS OR EQUIVALENT TO &#8831;
DOES NOT PRECEDE &#8832;
DOES NOT SUCCEED &#8833;
SQUARE IMAGE OF &#8847;
SQUARE ORIGINAL OF &#8848;
SQUARE IMAGE OF OR EQUAL TO &#8849;
SQUARE ORIGINAL OF OR EQUAL TO &#8850;
SQUARE CAP &#8851;
SQUARE CUP &#8852;
CIRCLED PLUS &#8853;
CIRCLED MINUS &#8854;
CIRCLED TIMES &#8855;
CIRCLED DIVISION SLASH &#8856;
CIRCLED DOT OPERATOR &#8857;
CIRCLED RING OPERATOR &#8858;
CIRCLED ASTERISK OPERATOR &#8859;
CIRCLED EQUALS &#8860;
CIRCLED DASH &#8861;
SQUARED PLUS &#8862;
SQUARED MINUS &#8863;
SQUARED TIMES &#8864;
SQUARED DOT OPERATOR &#8874;
ASSERTION &#8870;
MODELS &#8871;
TRUE &#8872;
FORCES &#8873;
TRIPLE VERTICAL BAR RIGHT TURNSTILE &#8874;
DOUBLE VERTICAL BAR DOUBLE RIGHT TURNSTILE &#8875;
DOES NOT PROVE &#8876;
NOT TRUE &#8877;
DOES NOT FORCE &#8878;
NEGATED DOUBLE VERTICAL BAR DOUBLE RIGHT TURNSTILE &#8879;
PRECEDES UNDER RELATION &#8880;
SUCCEEDS UNDER RELATION &#8881;
NORMAL SUBGROUP OF &#8882;
CONTAINS AS NORMAL SUBGROUP &#8883;
NORMAL SUBGROUP OF OR EQUAL TO &#8884;
CONTAINS AS NORMAL SUBGROUP OR EQUAL TO &#8885;
ORIGINAL OF &#8886;
IMAGE OF &#8887;
MULTIMAP &#8888;
HERMITIAN CONJUGATE MATRIX &#8889;
INTERCALATE &#8890;
DIAMOND OPERATOR &#8900;
DOT OPERATOR &#8901;
STAR OPERATOR &#8902;
DIVISION TIMES &#8903;
BOWTIE &#8904;
LEFT NORMAL FACTOR SEMIDIRECT PRODUCT &#8905;
RIGHT NORMAL FACTOR SEMIDIRECT PRODUCT &#8906;
LEFT SEMIDIRECT PRODUCT &#8907;
RIGHT SEMIDIRECT PRODUCT &#8908;
REVERSED TILDE EQUALS &#8909;
PITCHFORK &#8916;
EQUAL AND PARALLEL TO &#8917;
LESS-THAN WITH DOT &#8918;
GREATER-THAN WITH DOT &#8919;
VERY MUCH LESS-THAN &#8920;
VERY MUCH GREATER-THAN &#8921;
LESS-THAN EQUAL TO OR GREATER-THAN &#8922;
GREATER-THAN EQUAL TO OR LESS-THAN &#8923;
EQUAL TO OR LESS-THAN &#8924;
EQUAL TO OR GREATER-THAN &#8925;
EQUAL TO OR PRECEDES &#8926;
EQUAL TO OR SUCCEEDS &#8927;
DOES NOT PRECEDE OR EQUAL &#8928;
DOES NOT SUCCEED OR EQUAL &#8929;
NOT SQUARE IMAGE OF OR EQUAL TO &#8930;
NOT SQUARE ORIGINAL OF OR EQUAL TO &#8931;
SQUARE IMAGE OF OR NOT EQUAL TO &#8932;
SQUARE ORIGINAL OF OR NOT EQUAL TO &#8933;
LESS-THAN BUT NOT EQUIVALENT TO &#8934;
GREATER-THAN BUT NOT EQUIVALENT TO &#8935;
PRECEDES BUT NOT EQUIVALENT TO &#8936;
SUCCEEDS BUT NOT EQUIVALENT TO &#8937;
NOT NORMAL SUBGROUP OF &#8938;
DOES NOT CONTAIN AS NORMAL SUBGROUP &#8939;
NOT NORMAL SUBGROUP OF OR EQUAL TO &#8940;
DOES NOT CONTAIN AS NORMAL SUBGROUP OR EQUAL &#8941;
VERTICAL ELLIPSIS &#8942;
MIDLINE HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS &#8943;
UP RIGHT DIAGONAL ELLIPSIS &#8944;
DOWN RIGHT DIAGONAL ELLIPSIS &#8945;

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About The Codes

Use these codes if you need to insert a word or short phrase within a multilingual text.

Declare Unicode Encoding

The codes listed below are valid for Unicode HTML pages only, and may not work on very old browsers. To make your page a Unicode page, add the following meta tag to the <head> portion of your document.

<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
...
<head>

If you forget to include this tag, then some browsers, such as Netscape 4.7, may not display the characters properly.

XHTML

The final close slash must be included after the final quote mark in the encoding header tag if you are using XHTML

<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
...
<head>

No Encoding Declared

If no encoding is declared, then the browser uses the default setting, which in the U.S. is typically Latin-1. In that case many Unicode characters could be displayed incorrectly. Also, older browsers such as Netscape 4.7 may not be able to process the entity codes correctly without the "utf-8" declaration.

Using the Entity Codes

The Unicode numeric entity codes can be expressed as either decimal numbers or hexadecimal numbers.

For instance, the decimal version of the therefore symbol (∴) would be &#8756;

The hexadecimal version of the therefore symbol (∴) would be &#x2234;
Note that the hexadecimal numbers include x as part of the code.

Windows Word Numeric Alt Codes

Use ALT plus the decimal version of any code to input it into a Windows document.

Note: These work only in Word 2003+ for Windows. Users with other software or versions of Windows may wish to use the Character Map instead.

OS X Option Codes

If an application supports the Unicode Hex input Keyboard, then use Option plus the hexadecimal number.

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Last Modified: Tuesday, 04-Jun-2013 12:40:01 EDT