Teaching and Learning with Technology

Computing With Accents and Foreign Scripts

Skip Menu

Scandinavian (Mainland)

This page covers utilities and codes for the modern languages of Danish, Norwegian, Swedish and Finnish.

See the Icelandic page for additional letters needed for Icelandic, Faeroese and Old Norse.

This Page

  1. Accent Codes
    1. Windows Alt Codes
    2. Windows International Keyboard
    3. Macintosh Accent Codes
  2. HTML Accent Codes and Language Codes
    1. da (Danish), fi (Finnish), no (Norwegian), nb (Norwegian, Bokmål), nn (Norwegian, Nynorsk), sv (Swedish),
  3. Linux Links

About the Scandinavian Letters

For historic reasons, the languages of Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland use a similar set of characters. The characters not found in English are listed below by language.

Extra Letters by Language
Languages Additional Characters
Swedish/Finnish Å,å,Ä,ä,Ö,ö
Danish/Norwegian Å,å,Æ,æ,Ø,ø

Note: All the major Scandinavian languages are related to each other, except for Finnish.

Windows Alt Codes

In Windows, combinations of the ALT key plus a numeric code can be used to type a non-English character (accented letter or punctuation symbol) in any Windows application. More detailed instructions about typing accents with ALT keys are available.  Additional options for entering accents in Windows are also listed in the Accents section of this Web site.

Windows codes for Nordic languages
Sym ALT Code
Æ ALT+0198 (Capital ash)
æ ALT+0230 (Lowercase ash)
Å ALT+0197 (Capital A ring)
å ALT+0229 (Lowercase A ring)
Ä ALT+0196 (Capital A umlaut)
ä ALT+0228 (Lowercase A umlaut)
Ø ALT+0216 (Capital O slash)
ø ALT+0248 (Lowercase O slash)
Ö ALT+0214 (Capital O umlaut)
ö ALT+0246 (Lowercase o slash)
« ALT+0171 (Left Angle Quote)
» ALT+0187 (Right Angle Quote)

Top of Page

Windows International Keyboard Codes

In order to use these codes you must activate the international keyboard. Instructions are listed in the Keyboards section of this Web site.

International Keyboard Codes for Accents
Character Code
æ, Æ RightAlt+Z, Shift+RightAlt+Z  (You must use the Alt key on the right)
å, Å RightAlt+W, Shift+RightAlt+W
ø, Ø RightAlt+L, Shift+RightAlt+L
Umlaut Accent
("+V) - Type double quote, then the vowel.


Quotes/Euro Sign
Sym Int'l Keyboard Code
« RightAlt+[
» RightAlt+]

Top of Page

Macintosh Accent Codes

Below are the accent codes or "Option" codes for the mainland Scandinavian letters. For the Template, the symbol "V" means any vowel. The format is to hold the first two keys down simultaneously, release, then type the vowel you wish to be accented.

Mac Accent Codes
Accent Code
æ, Æ

Option+' (single quote)

å, Å


ø, Ø


Umlaut Accent

Type Option+U, then the vowel.

«, »



Example 1: To input the lower case ö, hold down the Option key, then the U key. Release both keys then type lowercase o.
Example 2: To input the capital Ö, hold down the Option key, then the U key. Release all three keys then type capital O.

Top of Page

HTML Accent Codes

Scandinavian Encoding and Language Tags

These are the codes which allow browsers and screen readers to process data as the appropriate language. All letters in codes are lower case.

See Using Encoding and Language Codes for more information on the meaning and implementation of these codes.

HTML Entity Codes

Use these codes to input accented letters in HTML. For instance, if you want to type Bokmål (lit: "book Norwegian") you would type Bokmål.

The numbers in parentheses are the numeric codes assigned in Unicode encoding. For instance, because å is number 229 3, Bokmål can also be used to input Bokmål. These numbers are also used with the Windows Alt codes listed above.

HTML Special Entity codes for Mainland Scandinavian Languages
Sym Entity Code
Æ Æ (198)
æ æ (230)
Å Å (197)
å å (229)
Ä Ä (196)
ä ä (228)
Ð Ð (208)*
ð ð (240)*
Ø Ø (216)
ø ø (248)
Ö Ö (214)
ö ö (246)
Þ Þ (222)*
þ þ (254)*

European Quote Marks

Many modern texts use American style quotes, but if you wish to include European style quote marks, here are the codes. Note that these codes may not work in older browsers.

Entity Codes for Quotation Marks
Sym HTMl Entity Code
« « (left angle)
» » (right angle)
‹ (left single angle)
› (right single angle)
„(bottom quote)
‚(single bottom quote)
“(left curly quote)
‘(left single curly quote)
”(right curly quote)
’(right single curly quote)
– (en dash)
— (em dash)


Using Encoding and Language Codes

Computers process text by assuming a certain encoding or a system of matching electronic data with visual text characters. Whenever you develop a Web site you need to make sure the proper encoding is specified in the header tags; otherwise the browser may default to U.S. settings and not display the text properly.

To declare an encoding, insert or inspect the following meta-tag at the top of your HTML file, then replace "???" with one of the encoding codes listed above. If you are not sure, use utf-8 as the encoding.

Generic Encoding Template

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=??? ">

Declare Unicode

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8 ">


The final close slash must be included after the final quote mark in the encoding header tag if you are using XHTML

Declare Unicode in XHTML

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />

No Encoding Declared

If no encoding is declared, then the browser uses the default setting, which in the U.S. is typically Latin-1. Some display errors may occur.

Language Tags

Language tags are also suggested so that search engines and screen readers parse the language of a page. These are metadata tags which indicate the language of a page, not devices to trigger translation. Visit the Language Tag page to view information on where to insert it.

Top of Page




Top of Page

Last Modified: Tuesday, 04-Jun-2013 12:40:01 EDT