Teaching and Learning with Technology

Computing With Accents and Foreign Scripts

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Occitan and Franco-Provençal

This Page

  1. About the Languages
  2. Occitan Accent Codes
    1. Windows Alt Codes
    2. Windows International Keyboard
    3. Macintosh Accent Codes
  3. Franco-Provençal Accents - See French or Italian
  4. International Keyboards (New Page)
  5. HTML Accent Codes
    1. Language Codes: oc (Occitan), fp (Franco-Provençal), pro (Provençal/Old Occitan to 1500)
  6. Linux Links

About the Languages

About Occitan (oc)

Occitan (oc) refers to a series of related dialects in Southern France. Occitan's specific dialects include Langue D'oc, Provençal, Gascon, Limousin, and Auvergnat, all of which are reported to be mutually inteligible. Catalan is also closely related to this group of languages.

Franco-Provençal (fp)

Franco-Provençal is a third set of dialects "in between" standard French and Occitan spoken in the southeast, Western Switerland and northern Italy. Dialects include Picardie, Genevan, Savoy, Piedmontese (Italy).

Windows Alt Codes

In Windows, combinations of the ALT key plus a numeric code can be used to type a non-English character (accented letter or punctuation symbol) in any Windows application. More detailed instructions about typing accents with ALT keys are available.  Additional options for entering accents in Windows are also listed in the Accents section of this Web site.

See the French or Italian pages for information on Franco-Provençal accents.

Alt Codes for typing Occitan characters:

Capital Vowels
Vwl ALT Code
À ALT+0192
Á ALT+0193
È ALT+0200
É ALT+0201
Í ALT+0205
Ò ALT+0210
Ó ALT+0211
Ú ALT+0218
Lower Vowels
Vwl ALT Code
à ALT+0224
á ALT+0225
è ALT+0232
é ALT+0233
í ALT+0237
ò ALT+0242
ó ALT+0243
ú ALT+0250
Consonants, Punctuation
Sym ALT Code
Ç ALT+0199 (caps)
ç ALT+0231 (lower)
« ALT+0171 (Left Angle Quote)
» ALT+0187 (Right Angle Quote)

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Windows International Keyboard Codes

In order to use these codes you must activate the international keyboard. Instructions are listed in the Keyboards section of this Web site.

Accented Vowels

This list is organized by Accent type. The sample shows a letter with that accent, and the Notes present any special comments about using that accent.

For the Template, the symbol "V" means type any vowel.

International Keyboard Codes for Accents
Grave à À `, V ` = left single quote
Acute ó Ó ', V ' = apostrophe key

Example 1: To type lower case ó - Type the apostrophe key ('), then O.  For capital Ó, type the apostrophe, then capital O.

Consonants and Puncutation

For these codes, you must make sure you use the Alt key on the right side of the keyboard.
Note: that there is no shortcut for the joined O-E.

Codes for Consonants/Punctuation
Sym Code
Ç Shift+RightAlt + <
ç RightAlt + <
« RightAlt+[
» RightAlt+]

Windows Occitan Keyboard

If you wish to simulate a non U.S. keyboard, follow the instructions for Activating Keyboard Locales to activate and switch Microsoft keyboards.

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Macintosh Accent Codes

Accented Vowels

For the Template, the symbol "V" means any vowel. The format is to hold the first two keys down simultaneously, release, then type the vowel you wish to be accented.
Note: You should use the Occitan Keyboard if you need to type accents on the letter y.

Mac Accent Codes
Grave à À Option+`, V
Acute ú Ú Option+E, V

Example 1: To input the lower case ó, hold down the Option key, then the E key. Release both keys then type lowercase o.
Example 2: To input the capital Ó, hold down the Option key, then the E key. Release all three keys then type capital O.

Other Characters

Sym Mac Option Code
ç Option+C
Ç Shift+Option+C
« Option+\
» Shift+Option+\
(not on older fonts)

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HTML Accent Codes

Occitan Encoding and Language Tags

These are the codes which allow browsers and screen readers to process data as the appropriate language. All letters in codes are lower case.

See Using Encoding and Language Codes for more information on the meaning and implementation of these codes.

HTML Entity Codes

Use these codes to input accented letters in HTML. For instance, if you want to type algú you would type alg&uacte;.

The numbers in parentheses are the numeric codes assigned in Unicode encoding. For instance, because ú is number 250, alg&#250; can also be used to input algú. These numbers are also used with the Windows Alt codes listed above.

HTML entity code for Occitan characters:

Capital Vowels
Vwl Entity Code
À &Agrave;(192)
Á &Aacute;(193)
È &Egrave; (200)
É &Eacute; (201)
Í &Iacute; (205)
Ò &Ograve; (210)
Ó &Oacute; (211)
Ú &Uacute; (218)
Lower Vowels
Vwl Entity Code
à &agrave; (224)
á &aacute; (225)
è &egrave; (232)
é &eacute; (233)
í &icirc; (237)
ò &ograve; (242)
ó &oacute; (243)
ú &uacute; (250)
Sym Entity Code
Ç &Ccedil; (199)
ç &ccedil; (231)
« &laquo; (171)
» &raquo; (187)

Note: Older browsers may not the suport single angle codes (&lsaquo; / &rsaquo; for ‹ and ›).


Using Encoding and Language Codes

Computers process text by assuming a certain encoding or a system of matching electronic data with visual text characters. Whenever you develop a Web site you need to make sure the proper encoding is specified in the header tags; otherwise the browser may default to U.S. settings and not display the text properly.

To declare an encoding, insert or inspect the following meta-tag at the top of your HTML file, then replace "???" with one of the encoding codes listed above. If you are not sure, use utf-8 as the encoding.

Generic Encoding Template

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=??? ">

Declare Unicode

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8 ">


The final close slash must be included after the final quote mark in the encoding header tag if you are using XHTML

Declare Unicode in XHTML

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />

No Encoding Declared

If no encoding is declared, then the browser uses the default setting, which in the U.S. is typically Latin-1. Some display errors may occur.

Language Tags

Language tags are also suggested so that search engines and screen readers parse the language of a page. These are metadata tags which indicate the language of a page, not devices to trigger translation. Visit the Language Tag page to view information on where to insert it.

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Linux Links


Occitan Language Links

Franco-Provençal Language Links

Romance Language Links

Last Modified: Tuesday, 04-Jun-2013 12:40:01 EDT