Teaching and Learning with Technology

Computing With Accents and Foreign Scripts

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Portuguese

This Page

Almost all applications support Portuguese accents. Guidelines for typing and using accents are given below.  If you need to refer to additional characters, look under the Accents section.

Thanks to Ingrid Truemper for her technical assistance.

  1. About Portuguese
  2. Accent Codes
    1. Windows Alt Codes
    2. Windows International Keyboard
    3. Macintosh Accent Codes
  3. Portuguese or International Keyboards (New Page)
  4. HTML Accent Codes
    1. Language Codes: pt , pt-BR (Brazilian Portuguese), pt-PT (European/Continental/Portugal)
  5. Links
  6. Minority Languages of Portugal: See the Spanish Page

About Portuguese

Due to early colonialization from Portugal, forms of Portuguese can be found in South America (Brazil), Africa (Angola, Cape Verde, Mozambique, etc) and the South Pacific (East Timor).

Over the centuries, some of the Portuguese forms have diverged quite a bit, especially in Brazil versus Portugal (or European/Continental Portugues). The differences in spelling and grammar are significant enough that some translaters recommend separate documents for a Brazilian market versus a Portuguese market.

Note: Speakers in the U.S. learning Portuguese typically Brazilian Portuguese, which is now considered the prestige standard.

References

Galician

Galician is a language closely related to Portuguese, but spoken within the Galicia province of Spain. Information about Galician is located on the Spanish page.

Windows Alt Codes

In Windows, combinations of the ALT key plus a numeric code can be used to type a non-English character (accented letter or punctuation symbol) in any Windows application. More detailed instructions about typing accents with ALT keys are available.  Additional options for entering accents in Windows are also listed in the Accents section of this Web site.

Capital Vowels
Vwl Entity Code
À ALT+0192
Á ALT+0193
 ALT+0194
à ALT+0195
É ALT+0201
Ê ALT+0202
Í ALT+0205
Ó ALT+0211
Ô ALT+0212
Õ ALT+0213
Ú ALT+0218
Ü ALT+0220
Capital Vowels
Vwl Entity Code
à ALT+0224
á ALT+0225
â ALT+0226
ã ALT+0227
é ALT+0233
ê ALT+0234
í ALT+0237
ó ALT+0243
ô ALT+0244
õ ALT+0245
ú ALT+0250
ü ALT+0252
Other Symbols
Vwl Entity Code
Ç ALT+0199 (caps)
ç ALT+0231 (lower)
º ALT+0186 (Masculine Ordinal)
ª ALT+0170 (Feminine Ordinal)
« ALT+0171 (Left Angle Quote)
» ALT+0187 (Right Angle Quote)
ALT+0128
 

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Windows International Keyboard Codes

In order to use these codes you must activate the international keyboard. Instructions are listed in the Keyboards section of this Web site.

Accented Vowels

This list is organized by Accent type. For the Template, the symbol "V" means type any vowel.

Windows International Keyboard Codes for Portuguese
ACCENT SAMPLE TEMPLATE NOTES
Acute á Á ', V ' = apostrophe key
Circumflex â Â SHIFT+^, V  
Grave à À `, V ` = left single quote
Tilde ã Ã SHIFT+~,V  
Umlaut ë Ë ", V " = quote key

Example 1: To type lower case ó - Type the apostrophe key ('), then O.  For capital Ó, type the apostrophe, then capital O.

Consonants and Punctuation

For these codes, you must make sure you use the Alt key on the right side of the keyboard.

Codes for Consonants/Punctuation
Sym Code
Ç Shift+RightAlt + <
ç RightAlt + <
« RightAlt+[
» RightAlt+]
Control+RightAlt+5

Windows Portuguese Keyboard

If you wish to simiulate a Portuguese keyboard, follow the instructions for Activating Keyboard Locales to activate and switch Microsoft keyboards.

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Macintosh Accent Codes

Accented Vowels

For the Template, the symbol "V" means type any vowel. The format is to hold the first two keys down simultaneously, release, then type the vowel you wish to be accented.

Macintosh Option Codes for Portuguese
ACCENT SAMPLE TEMPLATE
Acute á Á Option+E, V
Circumflex â Â Option+I, V
Grave à À Option+`, V
Tilde ã Ã Option+N, V
Umlaut ë Ë Option+U, V

Example 1: To input the lower case ó, hold down the Option key, then the E key. Release both keys then type lowercase o.
Example 2: To input the capital Ó, hold down the Option key, then the E key. Release all three keys then type capital O.

Other Characters

Other Mac Codes
Sym Code
ç Option+C
Ç Shift+Option+C
º Option+0
ª Option+9
« Option+\
» Shift+Option+\
Shift+Option+2
(not on older fonts)

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HTML Accent Codes

Portuguese Encoding and Language Tags

These are the codes which allow browsers and screen readers to process data as the appropriate language. All letters in codes are lower case.

See Using Encoding and Language Codes for more information on implementing these codes.
Note: The differences in grammar are significant enough that many translators recommend separate documents for a Brazilian market versus a Portuguese market, so it is beneficial to indicate the country code when using Portuguese.

HTML Entity Codes

Use these codes to input accented letters in HTML. For instance, if you want to type São you would type S&atilde;o.

The numbers in parentheses are the numeric codes assigned in Unicode encoding. For instance, because ã is number 227, S&#227;o can also be used to input São. These numbers are also used with the Windows Alt codes listed above.

Capital Vowels
Vwl ALT Code
À &Agrave; (192)
Á &Aacute; (193)
 &Acirc; (194)
à &Atilde; (195)
É &Eacute; (201)
Ê &Ecirc; (202)
Í &Iacute; (205)
Ó &Oacute; (211)
Ô &Ocirc; (212)
Õ &Otilde; (213)
Ú &Uacute; (218)
Ü &Uuml; (220)
Lower Vowels
Vwl ALT Code
à &agrave; (224)
á &aacute; (225)
â &acirc; (226)
ã &atilde; (227)
é &eacute; (233)
ê &ecirc; (234)
í &iacute; (237)
ó &oacute; (243)
ô &ocirc; (244)
õ &otilde; (245)
ú &uacute; (250)
ü &uuml; (252)
Consonants/Symbols
Sym ALT Code
Ç &Ccedil; (199)
ç &ccedil; (231)
º &ordm; (186)
ª &ordf; (170)
« &laquo; (171)
» &raquo; (187)
&lsaquo;
&rsaquo;
&euro;
 

Note: Older browsers may not the suport single angle codes (&lsaquo; / &rsaquo; for ‹ and ›).

Using Encoding and Language Codes

Computers process text by assuming a certain encoding or a system of matching electronic data with visual text characters. Whenever you develop a Web site you need to make sure the proper encoding is specified in the header tags; otherwise the browser may default to U.S. settings and not display the text properly.

To declare an encoding, insert or inspect the following meta-tag at the top of your HTML file, then replace "???" with one of the encoding codes listed above. If you are not sure, use utf-8 as the encoding.

Generic Encoding Template

<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=??? ">
...
<head>

Declare Unicode

<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8 ">
...
<head>

XHTML

The final close slash must be included after the final quote mark in the encoding header tag if you are using XHTML

Declare Unicode in XHTML

<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
...
<head>

No Encoding Declared

If no encoding is declared, then the browser uses the default setting, which in the U.S. is typically Latin-1. In that case many Unicode characters could be displayed incorrectly. Also, older browsers such as Netscape 4.7 may not be able to process the entity codes correctly without the "utf-8" declaration.

Language Tags

Language tags are also suggested so that search engines and screen readers parse the language of a page. These are metadata tags which indicate the language of a page, not devices to trigger translation. Visit the Language Tag page to view information on where to insert it.

Note on Country Codes

Speakers in the U.S. learning Portuguese typically learn forms spoken in Brazil, which is now considered a prestige standard. Brazillian Portuguese is contrasted with European or Continental Portuguese spoken in Portugal. The differences in grammar are significant enough that many translators recommend separate documents for a Brazilian market versus a Portuguese market, so it is beneficial to indicate the country code when using Portuguese.

References

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Links

Linux/Unix

Most content in Portuguese.

Brazillian vs. European Portuguese

 

Last Modified: Tuesday, 04-Jun-2013 12:40:03 EDT