Teaching and Learning with Technology

Computing With Accents and Foreign Scripts

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Turkish

Thanks to Ozgur Sahoglu and Sir William Arbuthnot for their technical assistance.

This Page

  1. Turkish Encoding & Fonts
  2. Activate Windows Keyboards for Typing
  3. Activate Macintosh Keyboards for Typing
  4. Web Development
    1. Language Codes: tr (Turkish), ota (Ottoman Turkish)
  5. Unicode Character Codes
  6. Links

Turkish Encoding & Fonts

Although modern Turkish is written in the Roman alphabet, it is encoded as Unicode or ISO-8859-9 and requires special font and keyboard support separate from languages like Spanish and French.

Unicode Fonts

Modern versions of many fonts such as Times New Roman, Arial, Verdana, Tahoman Times CE (Mac OS X) or Palatino (Mac OS X) are Unicode fonts and contain the letters needed for this language. it is recommended you transistion to the newer Unicode fonts whenever possible.

See Slovo Info Unicode Fonts for additional Unicode fonts supporting Turkish.

Ottoman Turkish

In earlier centuries, Turkish was written with the Arabic alphabet. See the Arabic page for details on Arabic support.

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Activate Windows Keyboards for Typing

Windows Turkish Keyboard

As of Windows XP Microsoft provides a Turkish Q and a Turkish F keyboard utility which allows you to type extra Turkish letters. If you wish to simulate a Turkish keyboard, do the following:

  1. Go to Start then Control Panels then Regional and Language Options. Follow the instructions for Activating the Language Bar
  2. While in the Regional and Language Options control panel, click on the Languages tab, then the Details button.
  3. Click the Add button and select Turkish from the Input Language dropdown menu.
  4. Place a check in the Keyboard layout/IME box and select either Turkish Q or Turkish F from the drop-down menu.
  5. Click OK to close all windows and save changes.

    See Detailed Instructions for more detailed instructions with screen capture images. See the Micorosoft Keyboard Layouts for the position of the keys.

Windows Numeric Alt Codes (Word 2003/2007)

If you are using a recent version of Microsoft Word (2003/2007/2010), you can use the  following ALT key plus a numeric code can be used to type a Latin character (accented letter or punctuation symbol) in any Windows application.

Notes on the Codes

Word ALT Codes
Cns ALT Codes
Ç ALT+0199
Capital C cedille
ç ALT+0231
Lower C cedille
Ğ ALT+0286 
Capital G breve
ğ ALT+0287
Lower G breve
Ş ALT+0350
Capital S cedille
ş ALT+0351
Capital S cedille

 

NOTE: Codes with numbers over 255 are only available in Word 2003/2007. Users with older versions of Windows or not using may need to use the Character Map utility.

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Activate Macintosh Keyboards for Typing

OS X Unicode Fonts

The new CE fonts for OS X (Times CE) as well as new versions of Palatino, Times New Roman, Arial and others now contain Turkish letters. It is recommended that you transition to these fonts whenever possible.

OS X Turkish Keyboard

Apple now has several Turkish keyboards, includig a QWERTY keyboard and QWERTY PC keyboard, but they only work for Unicode Aware applications such as Microsoft Office 2004, Text Edit, Dreamweaver MX, Netscape 7 Composer and others.

See instructions for activating a Macintosh keyboard for more details.

OS X Extended Accent Codes

If you are working with a Unicode aware application such as Microsoft Office 2004/2008, Text Edit (free with OS X ), Dreamweaver and others you can activate the U.S. Extended and use the following option codes along with the older accent codes.

Turkish Extended Codes for OS X

Turkish Vowels
Vwl Option Code
İ Option+W,Shift+I
dotted capital I
ı Option+W,
I
dotless I
Ö Option+u,O
ö Option+u,o
Ü Option+u,U
ü Option+u,u
Turkish Consonants
Cns Option Code
Ç Shift+Option+C
Capital C cedille
ç

Option+C
Lower C cedille

Ğ Option+V,Shift+G
Capital G breve
ğ Option+V,g
Lower
G breve
Ş Option+C,Shift+S
Capital S cedille
ş Options+C,S
Lower S-cedille
 

Other Applications

There are also a number of freeware and shareware Turkish fonts.  You can check the Summer Institute for Linguistics Fonts in Cyberspace for more details.

For the Web, you can use the Unicode numeric codes listed below.

System 9

For print work, there are a number of freeware and shareware fonts for Turkish.  You can check the Summer Institute for Linguistics Fonts in Cyberspace for more details.

For the Web, you can use the Unicode numeric codes listed below.

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Browser and Font Setup

Browser Setup

Please note which fonts are needed for each platform before viewing instructions to configure your browsers in the Preferences or Tools menu. Most browsers are recommended, but older browsers like Netscape 4.7 may need more adjustments.

Fonts by Platform

Recommended Browsers

All modern browsers support this script. Click link in list to view configuration instructions. In some cases, you will be asked to match a script with a font.

Testing and Troubleshooting Web Sites

NOTE: The following test Web sites were selected randomly. They are in no way endorsed or critiqued by Penn State.

Test Web Site - www.fotograf.net/tr/ (Turkish Photos)

If you have your browser configured correctly, the Web sites above should display Turkish letters.

Manually Switch Encoding

If you see some unusual letters instead of the appropriate Turkish letters, you will need to manually switch from Western encoding to one of the Turkish encodings or Unicode under the View menu of your browser.

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Web Development

Encoding and Language Tags

These are the codes which allow browsers and screen readers to process data as the appropriate language. All letters in codes are lower case.

See Using Encoding and Language Codes for more information on the meaning and implementation of these codes.

Inputting and Editing Text in an HTML Editor

One option is to use Dreamweaver, Microsoft Expression or other Web editor and change the keyboard to the correct script. This will allow you to type content in directly with the appropriate script. However, it is important to verify that the correct encoding is specified in the Web page header.

Another option is to compose the basic text in an international or foreign language text editor or word processor and export the content as an HTML or text file with the appropriate encoding. This file could be opened in another HTML editor such as Dreamweaver or Microsoft Expression, and edited for formatting.

Other Web Tools

For Web tools such as Blogs at Penn State, Facebook, Twitter, del.icio.us, Flicker, and others, users can typically change the keyboard and input text. In most cases, this content will be encoded as Unicode.

Using Encoding and Language Codes

Computers process text by assuming a certain encoding or a system of matching electronic data with visual text characters. Whenever you develop a Web site you need to make sure the proper encoding is specified in the header tags; otherwise the browser may default to U.S. settings and not display the text properly.

To declare an encoding, insert or inspect the following meta-tag at the top of your HTML file, then replace "???" with one of the encoding codes listed above. If you are not sure, use utf-8 as the encoding.

Generic Encoding Template

<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=??? ">
...
<head>

Declare Unicode

<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8 ">
...
<head>

XHTML

The final close slash must be included after the final quote mark in the encoding header tag if you are using XHTML

Declare Unicode in XHTML

<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
...
<head>

No Encoding Declared

If no encoding is declared, then the browser uses the default setting, which in the U.S. is typically Latin-1. In that case many Unicode characters could be displayed incorrectly. Also, older browsers such as Netscape 4.7 may not be able to process the entity codes correctly without the "utf-8" declaration.

Language Tags

Language tags are also suggested so that search engines and screen readers parse the language of a page. These are metadata tags which indicate the language of a page, not devices to trigger translation. Visit the Language Tag page to view information on where to insert it.

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Unicode Accent Codes for HTML

The Entity Codes

Use these codes to input accented letters in HTML. For instance, if you want to type çarşı you would type &cedil;ar&#351;&#305. These numbers are also used with the Windows Alt codes listed above.

Be sure the appropriate Encodings and Language Tags are used.

Turkish Unicode HTML codes

Turkic Vowels
Vwl Entity Codes
İ &#304;
Capital dotted I
ı &#305;
Lower dotless I
Ö &Ouml; (214)
ö &ouml; (246)
Ü &Uuml; (220)
ü &uuml; (252)
Turkic Consonants
Cns Entity Codes
Ç &Ccedil; (199)
Capital C cedille
ç &ccedil; (231)
Lower C cedille
Ğ &#286;
Capital G breve
ğ &#287;
Lower G breve
Ş &#350;
Capital S cedille
ş &#351;
Lower S cedille
 

NOTE: Because these are Unicode characters, the formatting may not exactly match that of the surrounding text depending on the browser.

European Quote Marks

Many modern texts use American style quotes, but if you wish to include European style quote marks, here are the codes. Note that these codes may not work in older browsers.

Entity Codes for Quotation Marks
Sym HTMl Entity Code
« &laquo; (left angle)
» &raquo; (right angle)
&lsaquo; (left single angle)
&rsaquo; (right single angle)
&bdquo;(bottom quote)
&sbquo;(single bottom quote)
&ldquo;(left curly quote)
&lsquo;(left single curly quote)
&rdquo;(right curly quote)
&rsquo;(right single curly quote)
&ndash; (en dash)
&mdash; (em dash)

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Links

Turkish

Turkic Languages and Internationalization

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Last Modified: Tuesday, 04-Jun-2013 12:40:08 EDT