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Computing With Accents and Foreign Scripts

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Welsh and Cornish

See Also: Other Celtic Languages | Germanic Languages

This Page

  1. About Welsh and Cornish (and Unicode)
  2. Recommended Browsers and Fonts
  3. Accent Codes
    1. Windows Alt Codes
    2. Windows International Keyboard
    3. Macintosh Accent Codes
  4. Welsh or International Keyboards (New Page)
  5. HTML Accent Codes
    1. Language Codes: cy (Welsh), kw (Cornish), wlm (Middle Welsh), owl (Old Welsh), cnx (Middle Cornish), oco (Old Cornish)
  6. Linux Links

About Welsh and Cornish

Welsh and Breton are both Brythonic Celtic language from Britain. Welsh is spoken by a large community in Walses, especially in the north. Cornish is officially extinct, but many residents of Cornwall have learned a reconstructed variety, and some consider themselves fluent or native

Both languages are closely related to Breton (France) and more distantly related to Irish and Gaelic. Breton does not have as many accented charcters as French.

Unicode for Welsh

Because of the writing system, Welsh places accents on the letters w (phonetic /u/) and y (phonetic /ɨ/ or /i/), which is very unique in languages of the world. These symbols require Unicode support apart from that of other Western European languages.

Welsh Links

Cornish Links

Recommended Browsers and Fonts

Recommended Browsers

Browsers which fully support Unicode are strongly recommended. Click link in list to view configuration instructions. You will be asked to match a script with a font.

Unicode Fonts

Modern versions of many fonts such as Times New Roman, Arial, Verdana, Tahoman Times CE (Mac OS X) or Palatino (Mac OS X) are Unicode fonts and contain the letters needed for this language. it is recommended you transistion to the newer Unicode fonts whenever possible.

Middle Welsh fonts

For the more uncommon Middle Welsh manusciript characters (not all of which are listed here), you may need a specialized font such as the ones listed below.

 

Windows Alt Codes

Welsh mostly uses the circumflex accent, but other accents are used as well. Cornish uses few accents, but some texts may use long marks and other accents.

Windows Welsh Keyboard

As of Windows XP Microsoft provides a Welsh keyboard utility which allows you to type accented W and Y. If you wish to simulate a Welsh keyboard, do the following:

  1. Go to Start then Control Panels then Regional and Language Options. Follow the instructions for Activating the Language Bar
  2. While in the Regional and Language Options control panel, click on the Languages tab, then the Details button.
  3. Click the Add button and select Welsh from the Input Language dropdown menu.
  4. Click OK to close all windows and save changes.

    See Detailed Instructions for more detailed instructions with screen capture images. See the Micorosoft Keyboard Layouts for the position of the keys.

Windows Alt Codes (Modern Welsh

Vowel Codes

NOTE: Codes with numbers over 255 are only available in Microsoft Word. Users with older versions of Windows or not using may need to use the Character Map utility.

Alt Codes for typing Welsh accents:
Accent A E I O U Y W
Circumflex
(Cap)
Â
0194
Ê
0202
Î
0206
Ô
0212
Û
0219
Ŷ
0374
Ŵ
0372
Circumflex (Lower) â
0226
ê
0234
î
0238
ô
0244
û
0251
ŷ
0375
ŵ
0373
Acute
(Cap)
Á
0193
É
0201
Í
0205
Ó
0211
Ú
0218
Ý
0221

7810
Acute (Lower) á
0225
é
0233
í
0237
ó
0243
ú
0250
ý
0253

7811
Umlaut
(Cap)
Ä
0196
Ë
0203
Ï
0207
Ö
0214
Ü
0220
Ÿ
0159

7812
Umlaut (Lower) ä
0228
ë
0235
ï
0239
ö
0246
ü
0252
ÿ
0255

7813
Grave
(Cap)
À
0192
È
0200
Ì
0204
Ò
0210
Ù
0217
Ù
0217

7808
Grave (Lower) à
0224
è
0232
ì
0236
ò
0242
ù
0249
Ù
0217

7809
Macron/Long
(Cap)
Ā
0256
Ē
0274
Ī
0298
Ō
0332
Ū
0362
Ȳ
0562
--
Umlaut (Lower) ā
0257
ē
0275
ī
0299
ō
0333
ū
0363
ȳ
0563
--

In Windows, combinations of the ALT key plus a numeric code can be used to type a non-English character (accented letter or punctuation symbol) in any Windows application. More detailed instructions about typing accents with ALT keys are available.  Additional options for entering accents in Windows are also listed in the Accents section of this Web site.

Currency

Thise codes work in any Windows application.

Currency ALT Codes
  ALT Code
£ ALT+0163
ALT+0128

Middle Welsh Character Codes

These codes work only in Microsoft Word and may require a special Middle Welsh font. Note that two lowercase delta characters are listed – one from the Greek block and one from the Latin Extended blocks. Use whichever is most appropriate.

Middle Welsh Codes
Sym ALT Code
δ ALT+948
Greek lower Delta
δ ALT+7839
Latin lower Delta
ALT+7933
Lower Middle Welsh V alternate
(should resemble a pointed "6")
ALT+7932
Cap Middle Welsh V alternate
(should resemble a cursive V)
ALT+7930
Cap Double LL Ligature
ALT+7931
Lower Double LL Barred
ALT+7934
Cap Y with Loop Tail
ỿ ALT+7936
Lower Y with Loop Tail

 

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Windows International Keyboard Codes

In order to use these codes you must activate the international keyboard. Instructions are listed in the Keyboards section of this Web site.

Accented Vowels

This list is organized by Accent type. The sample shows a letter with that accent, and the Notes present any special comments about using that accent.

For the Template, the symbol "V" means type any vowel.

International Keyboard Codes
ACCENT SAMPLE TEMPLATE NOTES
Circumflex â Â SHIFT+^, V Wil not work with w.
Acute é É ', V ' = apostrophe key
Grave à À `, V ` = left single quote
Umlaut ë Ë ", V " = quote key

Example 1: To type lower case ó - Type the apostrophe key ('), then O.  For capital Ó, type the apostrophe, then capital O.

Currency

For these codes, you must make sure you use the Alt key on the right side of the keyboard.

Codes for Currency
Sym Code
£ Control+RightAlt+4
Control+RightAlt+5

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Macintosh Accent Codes

OS X Welsh Keyboard

Apple now has a Welsh keyboard, but it only works for Unicode Aware applications such as Microsoft Office 2004, Text Edit, Dreamweaver MX, Netscape 7 Composer and others.

See instructions for activating a Macintosh keyboard for more details.

OS X and Extended Keyboard

For Unicode Compliant Applications, you can activate the U.S. Extended keyboard (10.3/10.4) or the Extended Roman keyboard (10.2) to type the long marks. This utility will allow you typ type accents over Welsh Y,W and add long marks.

For older applications, the standard Macintosh vowel accent codes are available.

Welsh and Cornish Extended Keyboard Codes

Mac Extended Codes, X = any letter
ACCENT SAMPLE TEMPLATE
Circumflex Ŵ,ŵ Option+6, X
Acute Ẃ,ẃ Option+E, X
Grave Ẁ,ẁ Option+`, X
Umlaut Ÿ,ÿ Option+U, X
Long Mark Ā,ā Option+A, X

Example 1: To input the lower case ŵ (w-circumflex) hold down the Option key, then the 6 key. Release both keys then type lowercase w.

Currency

Mac Currency Codes
Sym Option Code
£ Option+3
Shift+Option+2
(not on older fonts)

Middle Welsh Manuscript Codes

To use the option codes below, you must activate and switch to the Unicode Hex Input Keyboard. Note that not all letters have a separate "Insular" counterpart.

Note: This character may not be visiable on a Windows machine unless a user installs a special font such as the ones listed above.

Mac Option Codes for Manuscripts
Sym Option Code
δ Option+03B4
Greek lower Delta
δ Option+1E9F
Latin lower Delta
Option+1EFD
Lower Middle Welsh V alternate
(should resemble a pointed "6")
Option+1EFD
Cap Middle Welsh V alternate
(should resemble a cursive V)
Option+1EFA
Cap Double LL Ligature
Option+1EFB
Lower Double LL Barred
Option+1EFE
Cap Y with Loop Tail
ỿ Option+1EFF
Lower Y with Loop Tail

 

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HTML Accent Codes

Encoding and Language Tags

These are the codes which allow browsers and screen readers to process data as the appropriate language. All letters in codes are lower case. Welsh pages should be encoded as Unicode in order to display the accent W's and Ys correctly.

Note: There is a "Celtic" Latin-8/Latin-14 standard (ISO-8859-14), but it has been supplanted by Unicode. Few applications support this standard.

See Using Encoding and Language Codes for more information on the meaning and implementation of these codes.

HTML Entity Codes

Accent Codes

Use these codes to input accented letters in HTML. For instance, if you want to type tân you would type tân. For gŵr, you would input gŵr.

HTML Entity Codes for Welsh Vowels
Accent A E I O U Y W
Circumflex
&Vcirc;
(Cap)
Â
Â
(194)
Ê
Ê
(202)
Î
Î
(206)
Ô
Ô
(212)
Û
Û
(219)
Ŷ
Ŷ
(374)
Ŵ
Ŵ
(372)
Circumflex (Lower) â
â
(226)
ê
ê
(234)
î
î
(238)
ô
ô
(244)
û
û
(251)
ŷ
ŷ
(375)
ŵ
ŵ
(373)
Acute
&Vacute;

(Cap)
Á
Á
(193)
É
É
(201)
Í
Í
(205)
Ó
Ó
(211)
Ú
Ú
(218)
Ý
Ý
(221)

Ẃ
(7810)
Acute (Lower) á
á
(225)
é
é
(233)
í
í
(237)
ó
ó
(243)
ú
ú
(250)
ý
ý
(253)

ẃ
(7811)
Umlaut
&Vuml;
(Cap)
Ä
Ä
(196)
Ë
Ë
(203)
Ï
Ï
(207)
Ö
Ö
(214)
Ü
Ü
(220)
Ÿ
Ÿ
(159)

Ẅ
(1E84)
Umlaut (Lower) ä
ä
(228)
ë
ë
(235)
ï
ï
(239)
ö
ö
(246)
ü
ü
(252)
ÿ
ÿ
(255)

ẅ
(1E85)
Grave
&Vgrave;

(Cap)
À
À
(192)
È
È
(200)
Ì
Ì
(204)
Ò
Ò
(210)
Ù
Ù
(217)

Ỳ
(7922)

Ẁ
(7808)
Grave (Lower) à
à
(224)
è
è
(232)
ì
&igrave
(236)
ò
ò
(242)
ù
ù
(249)

ỳ
(7923)

ẁ
(7809)
Long/Macron
Ā
Ā
(256)
Ē
Ē
(274)
Ī
Ī
(298)
Ō
Ō
(332)
Ū
Ū
(362)
Ȳ
Ȳ
(562)
--
Macron (Lower) ā
ā
(257)
ē
ē
(275)
ī
ī
(299)
ō
ō
(333)
ū
ū
(363)
ȳ
ȳ
(563)
--

The numbers in parentheses are the numeric codes assigned in Unicode encoding. For instance, because â is number 226 tân can also be used to input tân.These numbers are also used with the Windows Alt codes listed above.

Currency

€,£ Entity Codes
Sym Entity Code
£ £
€

Middle Welsh Character Codes

Middle Welsh Entity Codes
  Entity Code
δ δ
Greek lower Delta
δ ẟ
Latin lower Delta
ỽ
Lower Middle Welsh V alternate
(should resemble a pointed "6")
Ỽ
Cap Middle Welsh V alternate
(should resemble a cursive V)
Ỻ
Cap Double LL Ligature
ỻ
Lower Double LL Barred
Ỿ
Cap Y with Loop Tail
ỿ ἀ
Lower Y with Loop Tail

Using Encoding and Language Codes

Computers process text by assuming a certain encoding or a system of matching electronic data with visual text characters. Whenever you develop a Web site you need to make sure the proper encoding is specified in the header tags; otherwise the browser may default to U.S. settings and not display the text properly.

To declare an encoding, insert or inspect the following meta-tag at the top of your HTML file, then replace "???" with one of the encoding codes listed above.

<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=??? ">
...
<head>

Language tags are also suggested so that search engines and screen readers parse the language of a page. These are meta data tags which indicate the page of a language, not devices to trigger translation. Visit the Language Tag page to view information on where to insert it.

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Links

Welsh Links

Welsh Technology

Linux/Unix

Cornish Links

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Last Modified: Tuesday, 04-Jun-2013 12:40:09 EDT